R&D patterns are analyzed from two viewpoints. The first point is
by-sector where R&D funding comes from the government, industry and
abroad. The second point is by
field of research where R&D money is used for; agriculture, medical and physical science and
Triangle R&D Chart" is introduced to indicate the "real
driving force" which is pushing national R&D investment.
According to the chart, Japan and Korea are characterized as "Private-sector
driven", and Singapore is characterized as "MNC-driven",
while the other developing countries are characterized as
"Government-push". Malaysia seems to be following the trajectory of
Singapore, her neighbor competitor. The Philippines has a unique
pattern, where foreign sources of funds and the domestic educational sector
occupy relatively large portions.
as percentage of GDP goes beyond the 0.5% line only when private sector begins spending
its own money for R&D.
Historical Trend of R&DE/GDP, by Sector, Japan 1952-2000
Singapore R&D Pattern, by Sector
Triangle R&D Chart
PC Production Sitemap in Asia
Sitemap in Asia
your country's profile of R&D funding pattern by the sources of
What kind of policy measures can be effective in accelerating
"private sector-driven" and "MNC-driven" R&D
strategies? Discuss the merits and demerits of each strategy.
By Field of Research (FOR)
traditional components of national R&D investment are those for
agricultural and medical research. Physical science and engineering
research grows in the course of economic development.
patterns of national R&D reflect the industrial structure of the
economy. China has a typical heavy-industry-shift pattern.
Korea and Singapore have electronics/IT shift patterns. Taiwan seems in
rich countries naturally concentrate their R&D resources for better
exploitation of their resources endowments. Rubber in Malaysia, Geothermal
energy in the Philippines, etc.
patterns by FOR, selected countries
What is the research
strength in your country?