JICA Seminar on Evaluation of National R&D Projects

January 30, 2004

 

Introduction to National R & D Systems in Asia-Pacific

 

Yoshiki Mikami, Ph.D

Professor, Department of Management and Information Systems Science

Nagaoka University of Technology

 


ヒット カウンタ
since 2004/01/29

  1. National R&D Investment Level

  2. National R&D Investment Pattern

  3. Allocation and Flow of R&D Manpower

  4. Research Grants

  5. Government Sponsored R&D Projects

  6. Intellectual Property Rights Protection System

Participants Record since 2000


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1. National R&D Investment Level

The first part of the lecture overviews the research and development expenditure (R&DE) level of several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although the geographic scope of the analysis is limited due to the lack of statistical data on R&D, participants will get some idea about each country's national R&D level in macroscopic / macroeconomic terms.

Data

Chart 1-1: R&DE per GDP, selected countries

If the participants' country data is not represented, participants' observations or estimations are encouraged.

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2. National R&D Investment Patterns

National R&D patterns are analyzed from two viewpoints. The first point is by-sector where R&D funding comes from the government, industry and abroad. The second point is by field of research where R&D money is used for; agriculture, medical and physical science and engineering.

2.1. By Sector

"The Triangle R&D Chart" is introduced to indicate the "real driving force" which is pushing national R&D investment. According to the chart, Japan and Korea are characterized as "Private-sector driven", and Singapore is characterized as "MNC-driven", while the other developing countries are characterized as "Government-push". Malaysia seems to be following the trajectory of Singapore, her neighbor competitor. The Philippines has a unique pattern, where foreign sources of funds and the domestic educational sector occupy relatively large portions.

R&DE as percentage of GDP goes beyond the 0.5% line only when private sector begins spending its own money for R&D.

Data

Chart 2-1: Historical Trend of R&DE/GDP, by Sector, Japan 1952-2000

Chart 2-2: Singapore R&D Pattern, by Sector, 1997

Chart 2-3: Triangle R&D Chart

Chart 2-4: PC Production Sitemap in Asia

Chart 2-5: Semiconductor Production Sitemap in Asia

Discussion

Describe your country's profile of R&D funding pattern by the sources of funds. What kind of policy measures can be effective in accelerating "private sector-driven" and "MNC-driven" R&D strategies? Discuss the merits and demerits of each strategy.

 

2.2. By Field of Research (FOR)

Basic and traditional components of national R&D investment are those for agricultural and medical research. Physical science and engineering research grows in the course of economic development.

FOR patterns of national R&D reflect the industrial structure of the economy. China has a typical heavy-industry-shift pattern. Korea and Singapore have electronics/IT shift patterns. Taiwan seems in between. 

Resource rich countries naturally concentrate their R&D resources for better exploitation of their resources endowments. Rubber in Malaysia, Geothermal energy in the Philippines, etc.

Data

Chart 2-6: R&D patterns by FOR, selected countries (hand-out)

Discussion

What is the research strength in your country? 

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3. Allocation and Flow of R&D Manpower

An Indian high official once said, "Brain Drain is better than Brain-in-Drain". Every year, more than twenty thousand talented researchers are flooding from the Asia-Pacific region to the US. The so-called New Economy would not be possible without this in-flow of talent. The trans-border flow of potential R&D manpower is definitely another important flow of non-financial R&D resources.

On the other side, there seem to be big drains on the developing country side where much potential talent is employed in vain. How to make use of talent is as important as how to make use of money. How to create work incentives, and how to retain the critical mass of R&D talent inside the country should be the central question for S&T policy makers. 

Human resource development is, needless to say, another central issue for S&T policy makers.

Data

Chart 3-1: Estimated Flow of Researchers in Asia-Pacific region

Chart 3-2: Estimated Flow of Students in Asia-Pacific region

Chart 3-3: US S&T Manpower Structure

Chart 3-4: US S&T Manpower Structure, PhD Holders Only

Discussion

Describe the general conditions of R&D talent in your country. What are the critical problems to be solved?

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4. Research Grants

Almost every country has a "Research Grant" scheme, mainly designed to foster university-based research and public research institutes, while the size of grants differs very much among countries. The peer-review process (expert evaluation) and cross-flows of funds are important for efficient allocation of resources.

Links to grant giving bodies: 

USA: NSF, NIH, DOE, NASA, DARPA, etc.

Japan: MEXT (former Monbusho and STA), NEDO, etc.

country S&T Ministry/Agency Research Grant Scheme
Thailand NSTDA ?
  TRF ?
Malaysia MOSTE Industrial Grant Scheme (IGS), 1997-
  MOSTE? Multimedia Grant Scheme (MGS), 1997-
Singapore NSTB/A*STAR R&D Assistance Scheme (RDAS), 1981-
  NSTB/A*STAR Research Incentive Scheme for Companies (RISC), 1993-
  NSTB/A*STAR Innovation Development Scheme, 1995-
Indonesia RISTEK RUK, 1996-
     

and more.....Links to Science and Technology related agencies in Asia

Discussion

Which organization in your country is providing this type of grant? Does the allocation mechanism work efficiently? Do experts participate in the review process? Has a nation-wide review process been established? 

 

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5. Government Sponsored R&D Projects

In this section, large-scale, industry-oriented government sponsored R&D projects are focused on. Still, not many countries in the region have these kinds of project, mainly due to the premature status of domestic industrial R&D activities. 

Usually, this kind of "National Project" is expected to play a leading role in shaping strategic industrial sectors, not just for "pure research". Semiconductors, automobiles, petrochemicals, biotechnologies, etc. Once Indonesia tried to shape aerospace industry from the scratch. Many countries are now focusing on applications of ICT (information - communication technology). 

National Projects can be formulated to achieve social, environmental, security and other national goals. "To reduce dependency on imported oil", "To eliminate air pollution", "To secure national defense", etc.

It is very common to form R&D consortia to plan and undertake these "National projects" to stimulate cooperation and competition among different types of groups. 

Discussion  

What kind of criteria must be employed in selecting "National Projects"? Are they the same as criteria for pure research grants? Who should be involved in the planning stage of these projects? Who must be involved in R&D implementing bodies? 

  

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Intellectual Property Rights Protection System

Intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection system is a part of national R&D system, and it plays an important role in several contexts.

Firstly, it provides an incentive for creators. The point is clearly described in the words of Abraham Lincoln; "The patent system added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius."

Secondly, it paves the road through which foreign technology is transferred. This point can be best illustrated by the following episode.

"Japan joined the Paris Convention almost a century ago. It was on July 17, 1899, just two days after the Paris Convention went into force in Japan, that Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., otherwise now known as NEC Corporation, was formed through a tie-up between Nippon Electric Limited Partnership in Japan and Western Electric Co. Ltd. of the U. S. From the beginning, NEC's articles of incorporation included provisions on the management of intellectual property rights. This shows how strongly Western Electric insisted on strict patent controls on entering the Japanese market, which was then a developing country. Western Electric was a manufacturer of telephone receivers, which were growing in popularity at the time. Initially, the Nippon Electric Company focused on marketing imported telephone systems, but later began to assemble telephone systems from imported parts under the technical guidance of Western Electric. Eventually, the company became able to produce all units domestically. This was all made possible by the Western Electric's faith in the Japanese patent system and confidence that it could safely transfer its advanced technologies to Japan." ........by Mr. Takeshi Isayama, Commissioner of Japanese Patent Office, from his speech "APEC Region Intellectual Property Right Protections beyond the Year 2000", delivered on February 22, 1999 at APEC/ABAC Joint Symposium on Intellectual Property Rights.

Data

Chart 6-1: Commitment to Intellectual Property Conventions (Interactive Chart)

Chart 6-2: Number of patents granted to nationals and foreigners, selected Asian countries

Chart 6-3: Number of patents granted to nationals, selected Asian countries
 

Discussion

Describe your countries status of IPRs protection system. What kind of impacts been observed in your country after WTO/TRIPS agreement was signed. Is that considered giving negative impacts?

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Participants Record
 
Country Oraganization 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
    2001/3/5 2002/2/1      
China Hunan S&T Department x        
  National Center for S&T Evaluation   x      
Indonesia Ministry of Industry and Trade x        
  Indonesian Institute of Science
(LIPI)
x        
  National Development Planning Agency
(BAPENAS)
x xxx      
  Agency for Industrial & Trade R&D   xx      
Malaysia Malaysian Industrial Development Authority
(MIDA)
x        
Philippines Commission on Higher Education   x      
Thai Burapha University x        
  Thailand Research Fund   x      
Vietnam Ministry of Planning and Investment   x      
Chile National
(CONICYT)
x        
  Ministry of Public Works x x      
  Ministry of Education   x      
Mexico National Council of S&T
(CONACYT)
  x      
  National Ecology Institute
(CECNICA)
  x      
Peru National Institute for development
(INADE)
x        
Syria State Planning Commission   xx      
Total   9 15      

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last updated 2004/01/29     © Yoshiki Mikami    mail to Yoshiki Mikami

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