Evolution of National Innovation System: People's Republic of China [ with special focus to IT sector ]

 

INDUSTRY

UNIVERSITIES

GOVERNMENT

18th

Qing

 

 

 

 

 

 

19th

Qing

 

 

61-95 Yangwu movement

67 Jiangnan Arsenal (-1905)

68 Fuzhou Naval Yard

 

 

 

98 Beijing Univ.

38-42 1st Opium War

42 Treaty of Nanking

56-60 2nd Opium War

94-95 1st Sino-Japanese War

1900 _________

1911 Republic of China

 

 

11 Tsinghua Univ.

 

28 Chinese Academy of Science

 

 

11 Xinhai Revolution

 

 

WW II

 

 

 

1949-

Poeple's Republic of China

 

 

49 People's Republic of China

57 Defense Technology Agreement with Russia

1960s

 

 

64 1st nuclear test

66 1st ballistic missile launched

1966-76

 

"Cultural Revolution":

Overall stagnation in science and technology

 

71 Kissinger's visit

72 PM Tanaka's visit

1976-

 

78 Economic reform started

 

76 Univ. reopened

xx Deng Xiaoping

78 Peace Treaty with Japan

1980s

 

 

"Xia hai" (leaping into the sea) policy pushed scientists into market economics

86 China Natural Science Foundation (CNSF) /"863 Program"/88 "Torch Program"

89 Tiananmen Square protests

1990s

 

 

 

 

 

97 Hong Kong handed over to PRC

90 US permit exile student to receive green card

 

Scientists started to return home

 

91 "85 Program"

92 "Climbing up Grants"

93 New Patent Law into force

 

2000s

 

 

05 Lenovo purchased PC business from IBM

08 Beijing Olympic Games

 

01 joined to WTO

05 2nd manned spacecraft launched

[REFERENCE]

[1] "Scientists pushed into deep end of market economics", SCIENCE, Vol.262, 15 OCT 1993, pp.362-366.

[2] Benjamin A. Elman, On Their Own Terms - Science in China 1550-1900, Harvard University Press

[3] Nuclear Testing: 1945-1999, ppt slide animation