Evolution of National Innovation System: USA

 

INDUSTRY

UNIVERSITIES

GOVERNMENT

18th

 

 

76 Independence

90 Patent/Copyright Act

19th

 

 

 

 

62 Morrill Act

 

87 Hatch Act

 

 

62 Agricultural Dept.

strict interpretation of the constitution>>limited role of federal govft in R&D

@

1900 -

1930s

1898-1904

merger movement

GE, AT&T, GM, DuPont,

IBM, etc.

@

 

15 NACA

 

WW II

 

Influx of scientists and engineers from Europe

Involvement to defense R&D

OSRD

Defense Prod. Act

 

 

1945 -

1950s

Defense R&D

defense R&D spin-offs:

computer, semicon, IC,

jet-engine, aircraft,

nuclear power

@

46 ENIAC

49 EDVAC

 

 

45 COLD WAR

45 Science the Endless Frontier

 NSF

 

57 Sputnik shock

57 NASA

1960s

 

 

 

64 IBM /360

 

 

 

 

 

1970s

 

 

 

 

76 Apple Computer

 

 

76 Genentech (Stanford)

 

71 Nixon Doctrine

73 Oil Crisis

75 Withdrawal from Vietnam

1980s

 

 

 

 

 

 

80 Breakup of AT&T,

deregulation has created huge

business opportunities

85 Qualcomm

85 US-Japan semi. Agreement

80 Bayh-Dole Act

80 Genentech IPO

82 Sun Microsystems

 

 

 

80 Chip Act

80 Copyright Act amended

80 Chakrabarty decision

IPR Enforcement

 

88 Omnibus Trade &

Competitiveness Act

1990s

 

 

 

 

 

 

00 HCCP

00 H1-B visa relaxation

93 Internet privatized

95 Netscape IPO

95 Amazon.com est.

 

 

 

 

 

 

98 Google (Stanford)

 

 

 

95 WTO/TRIPS

 

 

99 CIA set up a venture capital gIn-Q-Ith (later In-Q-Tel)

2000s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 IT Bubble burst

 

 

 

 

 

05 Google IPO

01 9/11

01 Dept. of Homeland Security

 

 

[1] Harold Faulkner, American Economic History, Harper & Row.

[2] Vartan Gregorian, The Secret of Our Success, NEWSWEEK September 15, 2003, p.52

[3] Science The Endless Frontier, A Report to the President by Vannever Bush, Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, July 1945.

[4] Technology transfer requires an entrepreneurial academia, Nature Vol. 401, 2 September 1999, p.1